There were incentives: jobs people might not enjoy doing would receive higher pay. Fourier considered trade, which he associated with Jews, to be the "source of all evil" and advocated that Jews be forced to perform farm work in the phalansteries. Fourier characterized poverty not inequality as the principal cause of disorder in society, and he proposed to eradicate it by sufficiently high wages and by a "decent minimum" for those who were not able to work.
He believed that there were twelve common passions which resulted in types of character, so the ideal phalanx would have exactly people. One day there would be six million of these, loosely ruled by a world "omniarch", or later a World Congress of Phalanxes.
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He had a touching concern for the sexually rejected; jilted suitors would be led away by a corps of fairies who would soon cure them of their lovesickness, and visitors could consult the card-index of personality types for suitable partners for casual sex. He also defended homosexuality as a personal preference for some people. Fourier was also a supporter of women's rights in a time period where influences like Jean-Jacques Rousseau were prevalent.
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Fourier believed that all important jobs should be open to women on the basis of skill and aptitude rather than closed on account of gender. He spoke of women as individuals, not as half the human couple.
Fourier saw that "traditional" marriage could potentially hurt woman's rights as human beings and thus never married. Fourier's concern was to liberate every human individual, man, woman, and child, in two senses: Education and the liberation of human passion.
On Education , Fourier felt that "civilized" parents and teachers saw children as little idlers. He felt that children as early as age two and three were very industrious.
He listed the dominant tastes in all children to include, but not limited to:. Fourier was deeply disturbed by the disorder of his time and wanted to stabilize the course of events which surrounded him. Fourier saw his fellow human beings living in a world full of strife, chaos, and disorder. Fourier is best remembered for his writings on a new world order based on unity of action and harmonious collaboration. Numerous references to Fourierism appear in Dostoevsky's political novel The Possessed first published in In it Fourierism is used by the revolutionary faithful as something of an insult to their brethren and those within the circle are quick to defend themselves from being labeled a Fourierist.
Whether this is because it is a foreign ideology or because they believe it to be archaic is never made entirely clear. Fourier's ideas also took root in America, with his followers starting phalanxes throughout the country, including one of the most famous, Utopia, Ohio.
Kent Bromley, in his preface to Peter Kropotkin 's book The Conquest of Bread , considered Fourier to be the founder of the libertarian branch of socialist thought, as opposed to the authoritarian socialist ideas of Babeuf and Buonarroti. In the midth century, Fourier's influence began to rise again among writers reappraising socialist ideas outside the Marxist mainstream.
Walter Benjamin considered Fourier crucial enough to devote an entire "konvolut" of his massive, projected book on the Paris arcades, the Passagenwerk , to Fourier's thought and influence. He writes: "To have instituted play as the canon of a labor no longer rooted in exploitation is one of the great merits of Fourier", and notes that "Only in the summery middle of the nineteenth century, only under its sun, can one conceive of Fourier's fantasy materialized. In Whit Stillman 's film Metropolitan , the idealistic Tom Townsend describes himself as a Fourierist, and debates the success of social experiment Brook Farm with another of the characters.
Bidding him goodnight, Sally Fowler says, "Good luck with your furrierism. It was only after Proudhon's death that Marxism became a large movement. However, he did criticize authoritarian socialists of his period. Blanc: you desire neither Catholicism nor monarchy nor nobility, but you must have a God, a religion, a dictatorship, a censorship, a hierarchy, distinctions, and ranks.
For my part, I deny your God, your authority, your sovereignty, your judicial State, and all your representative mystifications". It was Proudhon's book What Is Property? In one of his first works, The Holy Family , Marx said: "Not only does Proudhon write in the interest of the proletarians , he is himself a proletarian, an ouvrier. His work is a scientific manifesto of the French proletariat".
However, Marx disagreed with Proudhon's anarchism and later published vicious criticisms of Proudhon.
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In their letters, Proudhon expressed disagreement with Marx's views on revolution: "I believe we have no need of it in order to succeed; and that consequently we should not put forward revolutionary action as a means of social reform, because that pretended means would simply be an appeal to force, to arbitrariness, in brief, a contradiction".
Proudhon opposed militarism, dictatorship and war, arguing that the "end of militarism is the mission of the nineteenth century, under pain of indefinite decadence"  and that the "workers alone are capable of putting an end to war by creating economic equilibrium. This presupposes a radical revolution in ideas and morals". Hoffman notes, War and Peace "ends by condemning war without reservation" and its "conclusion [is] that war is obsolete".
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If injustice was the cause of war, it followed that conflict could not be eliminated until society was reorganised along egalitarian lines. Proudhon had wanted to prove that the reign of political economy would be the reign of peace, finding it difficult to believe that people really thought he was defending militarism. Proudhon argued that under mutualism "[t]here will no longer be nationality, no longer fatherland, in the political sense of the words: they will mean only places of birth.
Man, of whatever race or colour he may be, is an inhabitant of the universe; citizenship is everywhere an acquired right". Proudhon also rejected dictatorship, stating in the s that "what I will always be His invectives against democracy were not those of a counter-revolutionary. They were aimed at what he himself called 'the false democracy'. They attacked an apparently liberal 'pseudo-democracy' which 'was not economic and social' Proudhon "did not want to destroy, but complete, the work of " and while "he had a grudge against the 'old democracy', the democracy of Robespierre and Marat", he repeatedly contrasted it "with a 'young democracy', which was a 'social democracy'".
According to historian of anarchism George Woodcock , some positions Proudhon took "sorted oddly with his avowed anarchism". Woodcock cited for example Proudhon's proposition that each citizen perform one or two years militia service. In the same document, Proudhon also described the "form of government" he was proposing as "a centralization analogous with that of the State, but in which no one obeys, no one is dependent, and everyone is free and sovereign".
In addition to being considered a founding father of anarchism, some have tried to link him to the extreme right. He was first used as a reference in the Cercle Proudhon , a right-wing association formed in by Georges Valois and Edouard Berth. Both had been brought together by the syndicalist Georges Sorel , but they would tend toward a synthesis of socialism and nationalism , mixing Proudhon's mutualism with Charles Maurras ' integralist nationalism.
In , Georges Valois founded the Faisceau , the first fascist league, which took its name from Mussolini 's fasci. Historian of fascism, in particular of French fascists , Zeev Sternhell , has noted this use of Proudhon by the far-right. In The Birth of Fascist Ideology , he states:. However, K. Steven Vincent states that "to argue that Proudhon was a proto-fascist suggests that one has never looked seriously at Proudhon's writings". Salwyn Schapiro argued in that Proudhon was a racist, "a glorifier of war for its own sake" and his "advocacy of personal dictatorship and his laudation of militarism can hardly be equalled in the reactionary writings of his or of our day".
Other scholars have rejected Schapiro's claims. Robert Graham states that while Proudhon was personally racist, "anti-semitism formed no part of Proudhon's revolutionary programme". Albert Meltzer has said that though Proudhon used the term "anarchist", he was not one and that he never engaged in "anarchist activity or struggle", but rather in "parliamentary activity". You are a man for whom logic does not exist.
You do not hear anything, you do not understand anything. You are without philosophy, without science, without humanity. Your ability to reason, like your ability to pay attention and make comparisons is zero. Scientifically, Mr. Bastiat, you are a dead man". In , he considered publishing an article against the Jewish race , which he said he "hated". The proposed article would have "called for the expulsion of the Jews from France". It would have stated: "The Jew is the enemy of the human race. This race must be sent back to Asia, or exterminated. Heine , A. Carnets, vol.
In an introduction to Proudhon's works, Iain McKay, author of An Anarchist FAQ AK Press, , cautions readers by saying that "[t]his is not to say that Proudhon was without flaws, for he had many"   and adding the following:.
He was not consistently libertarian in his ideas, tactics and language. His personal bigotries are disgusting and few modern anarchists would tolerate them — Namely, racism and sexism. He made some bad decisions and occasionally ranted in his private notebooks where the worst of his anti-Semitism was expressed. While he did place his defence of the patriarchal family at the core of his ideas, they are in direct contradiction to his own libertarian and egalitarian ideas.
In terms of racism, he sometimes reflected the less-than-enlightened assumptions and prejudices of the nineteenth century. While this does appear in his public work, such outbursts are both rare and asides usually an extremely infrequent passing anti-Semitic remark or caricature. In short, "racism was never the basis of Proudhon's political thinking" Gemie, and "anti-Semitism formed no part of Proudhon's revolutionary programme. Man, of whatever race or colour he may be, is an inhabitant of the universe; citizenship is everywhere an acquired right.