It reveals a distinct idealizing tendency, which gives it a Utopian flavor. In the complete Ex- traordinary Voyages of later date, the process of com- position is, to be sure, different. But regardless of the processes of composition, and regardless of whether the later writers of Extraordinary Voyages knew this strange book which went through three editions in ten years , the Voyages of Le Blanc must be considered a Hterary ancestor of the Terre australe connue of Foigny, of the Histoire des Sevarambes of Vairasse, and in a general sense, even of the Telemaque.
One is that of a woipan mating with a bear named Sagistan.
The other is a desert island story. A woman, accused of adultery, is left on a desert island with her lover, by order of her husband. The lover dies. The woman is cared for by a monkey, becomes his mistress and has children by him. When she escapes on a passing vessel, the animal murders their offspring before her eyes.
She returns to Europe, and lives a secluded life in a convent, after being acquitted by a rehgious court. The story is carefully substantiated. The same general type of story occurs in the Voyages of Mocquet pre- viously referred to.
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According to Mocquet, an English pilot cast away in America, on the mainland, has a child by a savage woman, who murders this child before his eyes when he leaves on a passing vessel. Mocquet, Voyages, Livre ii, pp. L'lle imaginaire, In the CEuvres deM. The story begins with adventures and shipwreck at sea; there is a description of the flora and fauna of the island, including bright blue and carmine colored rabbits.
There follows the description of a republic of dogs on this island, which is a flippant satire on works of the type of the Utopia, the Nova Atlantis, and the Civitas Solis. The great distinction between the lie imaginaire and the Extraordinary Voyages which follow, however, Ues in the transparent insincerity of the former. The title itself, containing the word "imaginaire," counteracts whatever attempts at realism are found later. The reader takes up the story prepared to read a fiction.
In the Voyages fameux of Le Blanc, this incident is given as a desert island story, which is not the case with Mocquet. See next chapter. Life and Publications of Foigny.enter site
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The Adventures of Sadeur. Life and Publications of Foigny In there appeared the first novel which falls within the definition given of "Extraordinary Voyage. Gilles, Although Sadeur is christened "Nicolas" in the first edition, the name occurs but once. His father's name is "Jacques," according to Sadeur 's account of him. It is for this reason that later editions use the title Les avantures de Jacques Sadeur. Sadeur, London, For titles of later editions see Bibliography. The man seems to have been known as Gabriel Foigny. As a young man, he entered the order of Franciscan monks.
Having left the monastery for reasons now miknown, he went to the neighborhood of Geneva and became a Protestant. He was for a time "chantre" or one of the regular singers in a church at Morges. Having upon at least one occasion appeared in church in a condition far from sober, he was turned out of his position, and went to seek his fortune in Geneva. Here, he made a Hving by tutoring small boys in grammar, geography, and other subjects. He also taught the French language to several persons of German speech.
After some time, he married a woman of the lowest class, who is reported to have been "not so scrupulous as Lucretia" in morals.
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Several pubhcations of Foigny appeared about this time. One was an almanac, which was remarkably inaccurate even for this sort of book. Foigny also pubhshed a set of cards illustrating heraldry, and the Marot and Beza Psalms, with a prayer of his own inven- tion at the end of each psalm. These prayers are char- acterized as "insipid compliments to the Deity" by a man who read them, and from whom all the facts of Foigny's hfe are received. Toward the end of , the Terre australe connue was printed. Bayle's correspondent states that it was printed at Geneva, and that the printer admitted having received the work from Foigny.
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There is a note here not included in Article Sadeur of the ed. It is in the form of a letter to Bayle from a person not named in Geneva. The title page see Note 1 reads "k Vannes. It is much more probable that it was printed at Geneva but as if at Vannes, in order to de- ceive the religious faction at Geneva who persecuted Foigny for its publication. In any event, the book was published in , probably at Geneva, and Foigny was allowed to remain in that city after its appearance through the influence of several German gentlemen whom he had instructed in French.
According to this dissertation, Der Titel der Genfer Ausgahe lautet: Les avantures de Jaques Sardeur dans la dicouverte et le voyage de la Terre australe. No other mention of this Geneva edition, with this title, is known to the present author. If Herr Giinther's statement is correct, then the Geneva correspondent of Bayle is proved right, and the Terre australe connue was printed in Geneva.
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That it should have been printed twice in the same year and with two different title pages is of course possible. The entire story of Bayle's corres- pondent is plausible and convincing in circumstantial details, and can be taken as reliable evidence without the support of Herr Giinther.
Unfortunately for the rehability of Herr Giinther's statements in the dissertation mentioned, a careful study of his disquisition reveals many serious mis- statements. In his treatment of the Histoire des Sevaramhes , the Extraordinary Voyage of Denis Vairasse, Herr Giinther shows absolute ignorance of the authorship of the novel, and cites no edition in French earUer than , whereas the novel was first pubUshed in its complete form, in French, in It is curious also in a way, that F. Wackwitz, whose dissertation, bearing the same title and date as Giinther's, but pubHshed at Berlin, although much more complete in bibliography, fails to mention the Geneva edition of the Terre australe connue referred to by Giinther.
Foigny was saved from the persecution of the clergy, and permitted to remain in Geneva. His troubles were not to end so soon, however, for he fled from Geneva some time later, leaving his maidservant in disgrace.
He died in a convent in Savoy in Foigny's was a tempestuous hfe, marked by both open and secret revolt against society and institutions. It would be vain to condone his faults. Chinard, in U Amerique et le rive exoiique,'' points out that a man of Foigny's temperament might have fared better in the newly discovered lands beyond the seas, and that in the physical activity of covering long and strange distances, he might have found a fitting antidote to his turbulent na- ture.
The facts of Foigny's life show that the only recourse for him was to change from one institution to another in the vain search for freedom of spirit and Ucense in morals. In Foigny's ideal com- monwealth there is no benign tyrant. There is no ruler, no ruling class. There are no slaves, no class distinctions, no famiUes raised above other families. The means which the hero Sadeur employs to discover this country of equality, and the description of the democracy of Foigny's imagination, furnish the material of the book. There follows a discussion of Magellan's discovery of the Tierra del Fuego, found later to be a part of America, and of Gonneville's return to France with a young native "qu'il qualifioit fils d'un Roy de ces Quartiers.
One para- graph of the Au lecteur suffices to indicate the sources of Foigny's Terre australe connue. Some later editions are incomplete; the Au lecteur is lacking entirely in the edition, for instance. Mention is then made of de Quir's eighth petition to the King of Spain regarding the discovery of Australia in the year The description of that country made by de Quir and by Paes de Torres, who was the admiral of de Quir's fleet, is also referred to.
It is pointed out that these two explorers agree as to the air being si sain. Fiuiher there are good hquors in the Austral land, no clothes are worn, and les sciences naturelles y sont en grande estime. To sum up, Voild le racourci des rapports de ces deux personnages.
All of this has a distinctly realistic flavor. It is in the same style as the pleading of real travelers, de Quir in his petition, and many others in recounting their discoveries. Discoverers almost always plead in their reports that the new land be claimed by their monarch in Europe. As to the pubHcation of Sadeur's hfe and discoveries, we are informed that the writer of the Au lecteur happened to be d Livorgne Van Here he witnessed the dis- 1' It will be seen, after a digest of the description of Australia, that de Quir's petition is very detailed, and that the account of Sadeur agrees time after time with the very details here denied.
A wide knowledge of de Quir's petition made this agreement wise if not necessary.
Sadeur, one of the passengers on this vessel, fell into the water, and was rescued in a weakened condition by the writer. By the best of good fortune, it was possible to salvage at the same time Sadeur's personal effects, in- cluding his memoirs. After being rescued, the traveler is luckily able to converse in Latin with the writer of the Au lectevr for a matter of two hours before dying as the result of his immersion.
Thus are the facts and memoirs of Sadeur's life providentially preserved.